Tag: geography


02

Nov 2015

Chinese Place Names in the Hyperion Cantos

It’s been a few weeks since I finished Dan Simmons’ sci-fi classic quadrilogy, the Hyperion Cantos. It was a great story, full of grand sweeping ideas, and one thing that got my attention was the repeated use of Chinese names (especially in Book 4).

Anyone studying Chinese might be a little thrown off by the use of the (mostly) Wade-Giles transcription instead of pinyin, but the names are all right out of Chinese history and geography (with a few errors).

Here’s a list of all the major ones I caught, with notes following (please leave a comment if I’ve missed anything):

Hyperion Pinyin Characters Notes
Tsingtao-Hsishuang Panna Qīngdǎo-Xīshuāngbǎnnà 青岛西双版纳 [Notes]
T’ien Shan Tiān Shān 天山 [Notes]
Hsuan-k’ung Ssu Xuánkōng Sì 悬空寺 [Notes]
Hua Shan Huà Shān 华山 [Notes]
Heng Shan Héng Shān 衡山 / 恒山 [Notes]
T’ai Shan Tài Shān 泰山 [Notes]
Sung Shan Sōng Shān 嵩山 [Notes]
O-mei Shan Éméi Shān 峨眉山 [Notes]
Chiu-hua Shan Jiǔhuà Shān 九华山 [Notes]
Wu-t’ai Shan Wǔtái Shān 五台山 [Notes]
P’u-t’o Shan Pǔtuó Shān 普陀山 [Notes]

Tsingtao-Hsishuang Panna

It seems odd to bring together the city of Qingdao (青岛) and the southern region of Xishuangbanna (西双版纳) into a name for a planet. In fact, the only way they make sense in my mind is drinking a Tsingdao (beer) in Xishuangbanna (a touristy region of Yunnan Province). Maybe that’s Simmons’ little secret for this planet?

IMG_0348

T’ien Shan

Tian Shan (天山) is actually a system of mountains, so it makes sense to use as a name for a mountainous planet. It’s also got a nice picturesque name, meaning “mountains of heaven.” Those of us the live in Shanghai might recognize it from the street name: 天山路.

天山山脉西段航拍 / West Tian Shan mountains

Hsuan-k’ung Su

Normally referred to as the “Hanging Temple” in English, this fantastical Buddhist structure is a real thing, located in China’s Shanxi Province.

Hanging Temple 2011

Hua Shan

Hua Shan (华山) is one of China’s “Five Great Mountains,” so it’s an obvious candidate for inclusion. Interestingly, at one point in Rise of Endymion the mountain is referred to as “Flower Mountain” (花山), but this is almost certainly a mistake based on similar romanization, considering that there are no obvious candidates from the list of possible 花山s in China, and pretty much all the other mountains listed can be found on this list of the “Sacred Mountains of China.” (There’s another Shanghai street name here too.)

hua shan

Heng Shan

I’m not sure whether Heng Shan refers to 衡山 or 恒山; both are in the list of “Give Great Mountains,” and the pinyin (including tone) is identical. I’m assuming Simmons wisely used one “Heng Shan” for both.

T’ai Shan

Tai Shan (泰山) is another of China’s “Five Great Mountains.”

Pano: 象鼻峰青雲洞 (象鼻峰青云洞 “Elephant Trunk Peak Green Cloud Cave”)  /  山東省泰安市泰山 (山东省泰安市泰山 Mount Tai, Tai'an City, Shandong Province) / 中國旅遊 中国旅游 China Tourism / SML.20121011.7D.09602-09605.Pano

Sung Shan

Song Shan (嵩山) is another of China’s “Give Great Mountains.”

O-mei Shan, Chiu-hua Shan, Wu-t’ai Shan, P’u-t’o Shan

The mountains Emei Shan (峨眉山), Jiahua Shan (九华山), Wutai Shan (五台山), and Putuo Shan (普陀山) are China’s Four Sacred Mountains of Buddhism, so they’re also easy choices. The “flower” translation mistake happens again with 九华山 at one point, and as I final question, does anyone else see “Chiu-hua” an think, “chihuahua”?

Ay Chihuahua

It’s cool to see a Western author drawing on Chinese names in his world-building, and before you cry “Pander Express!” keep in mind that these novels came out in the 90’s.

Feel free to leave a comment if I missed something or you have something to add.


Related Links:

Hyperion Cantos Wiki
Hyperion Cantos on Amazon


05

Aug 2011

Continent Names and Region Names in Chinese

Although not actually very complicated, the names of continents and world regions can trip up a student of Chinese. It’s not the continent names that are hard, it’s that knowing the continent names can lead one to incorrect inferences about the names of various world regions. An AllSet Learning client (this is for you, Stavros!) recently reminded me of this fact. I struggled with this myself not so long ago. Because no one ever took the time to lay it out for me, it took me forever to piece it together on my own.

Basically, the way it works in Chinese is like this:

1. If it’s a continent, it ends with the suffix –. (You can think of as representing the meaning “the continent of….”)
2. If it’s not a whole continent you’re talking about, drop the .

So that means, for example, that “Western Europe” is not ×西欧洲, because it wouldn’t make sense to say “the continent of Western Europe.” Drop the , and you get 西欧, the correct way to say “Western Europe.” It’s as easy as that. (I say “easy,” but I know I said ×西欧洲 quite a few times before anyone ever told me, “we never say that; just say 西欧.”)

These examples below should help drive the point home:

  • 亚洲 – Asia
    • 东亚 – East Asia
    • 东南亚 – Southeast Asia
    • 中东 – the Middle East
  • 欧洲 – Europe
    • 北欧 – Northern Europe
    • 西欧 – Western Europe
    • 东欧 – Eastern Europe
  • 非洲 – Africa
    • 北非 – Northern Africa
    • 南非 – South Africa (the country)
    • 西非 – West Africa
    • 东非 – East Africa
  • 澳洲 – Australia
  • 南极洲 – Antarctica (literally, “South Pole Continent”)
  • 北美洲 – North America
  • 南美洲 – South America

A couple final complications…

1. You don’t often divide either Antarctica or Australia into regions in Chinese
2. You can also say 美洲, which means something like “the Americas”
3. Because 北美洲 and 南美洲 already have cardinal directions built into their names, it’s awkward to try to use the short form (like ×东北美 or something).

So the world region names are actually pretty simple, no ke…